About the Author
Dr. Hendra Susanto is a Board Member of the Audit Board of the Republic of Indonesia (BPK). Prior to this, he was an auditor in BPK for 20 years. He holds a Bachelor Degree in Civil Engineering (Sriwijaya University), a Master of Engineering in Integrated Urban Infrastructure (Delft University of Technology, Netherlands), a Master of Business Law (Gadjah Mada University), and a Ph.D in Accounting (Padjajaran University). He is also a Certified Fraud Auditor and a Certified State Finance Auditor. Investigative and forensic audits are among his specializations.
About the Author
Mr. Novy Gregory Antonius Pelenkahu is the Director General of Audit I in BPK. Having been an auditor since 1989, he has held various positions at BPK and has contributed significantly to several audits receiving public attention. He holds an MBA from the George Washington University, USA.
About the Author
Dr. Eko Yulianto is a Principal Expert Auditor, who joined BPK in1995. He holds a Bachelor Degree in Accounting (Gadjah Mada University), a Master’s Degree in IT, Management and Organizational Change (Lancaster, UK), and a Ph.D in Accounting (Gadjah Mada University).
About the Author
Dr. Iman Sufrian is a Senior Auditor in BPK, since 1996. He holds a Bachelor Degree in Economics with a major in Management (University of Indonesia), a Master’s Degree in International Finance (Leeds University Business School, UK), and a Doctoral Degree in Economics (University of Indonesia).
Greater Jakarta is an agglomeration area1 where Jakarta is at the center of movement and is the nation's capital. The Greater Jakarta population is approximately 32 million people based on Central Bureau of Statistics data. Considering the large population and mobility of the people of the Greater Jakarta area, a daily commute is concentrated in (and around) Jakarta. Accordingly, transportation services must be integrated and continuous, and not fragmented or limited by the administrative area of the Government.
The Greater Jakarta area urgently needs integrated mass transportation services between modes of transportation and between regions. The population growth and the increasing number of motorized vehicle movements make the roads in the Greater Jakarta area congested and a key contributor to an increase in air pollution in the Greater Jakarta area. To make matters worse, the transportation sector’s governance in the Greater Jakarta area is complex, partly due to the regulation of the transportation sector involving multiple layers of governments, including: the central Government; provincial governments; and district/city governments in this region given the transportation sector is a concurrent government apparatus that involves all levels of governments. As a result, over time, a fragmented and overlapping regulation system is among one of the significant issues impacting the Greater Jakarta area's transportation sector.
The Government is aware of this urgent problem. Therefore, in a response to the urgent need to improve the governance of the transportation system in the Greater Jakarta area, the President of the Republic of Indonesia issued Presidential Regulation No. 103 of 2015 concerning the establishment of the Greater Jakarta Transportation Management Agency (Badan Pengelola Transportasi Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang/BPTJ). Furthermore, later in 2018, the Government enacted the Presidential Regulation No. 55 of 2018 concerning the Greater Jakarta Transportation Master Plan (Rencana Induk Transportasi Jakarta, Bogor, Tangerang, Bekasi/RITJ).
The Ministry of Transportation is one of the critical stakeholders that regulates the transportation sector. Therefore, the role of the Ministry of Transportation in regulating the transportation sector in the Greater Jakarta area is essential and strategic in nature with the BPTJ a work unit comprising officers at the level of echelon I at the Ministry of Transportation. In addition, one of the crucial roles of the BPTJ is to oversee the implementation of the RITJ.
Problems in the transportation sector in the Greater Jakarta area are one of the main problems that must be immediately parsed and resolved jointly by the central Government and local governments in the Greater Jakarta area. From the public’s standpoint, and particularly that of transportation users, the main problems felt are those of congestion and air pollution. These problems are complex with economic, social, and environmental dimensions.
The Government's initiative to unravel this problem has been to establish the BPTJ in 2015 and later enact the RITJ in 2018. The RITJ is a comprehensive plan with a long-term implementation timeframe with transportation system development in the Greater Jakarta area out until 2029.
The next challenge is how the BPTJ effectively oversees the implementation of the RITJ . Therefore, it is essential to identify the obstacles in implementing the RITJ and identify the root cause of associated problems.
Audit Motivation, Audit Objective, and Audit Scope
The Republic of Indonesia’s Supreme Audit Institution - BPK RI - conducted a performance audit to assess the implementation of the Greater Jakarta Transportation Master Plan. Implementing this master plan also supports Indonesia’s achievement of Sustainable Development Goals achievement, especially Goal 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities and particularly Goal 11.2 in relation to sustainable urban transportation in the Greater Jakarta area.
The objective of the performance audit was to evaluate the effectiveness of the BPTJ in overseeing the implementation of The Greater Jakarta Transportation Master Plan on the aspects of regulation, planning, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation.
The development of the criteria framework used to assess the effectiveness of the Ministry of Transportation, in this case, the BPTJ, in overseeing the implementation of the RITJ, was outlined in a matrix model called the Audit Design Matrix. The matrix identified one main criterion and four sub-criteria, as follows:
- Ministry of Transportation, in this case, the BPTJ, has effectively overseen the implementation of the RITJ:
- The Ministry of Transportation, in this case, the BPTJ, has effectively coordinated with related stakeholders in implementing the RITJ;
- The Ministry of Transportation, in this case, the BPTJ, has prepared an action plan related to the integration of public transportation modes in the Greater Jakarta area;
- The Ministry of Transportation, in this case the BPTJ, has effectively overseen the preparation of the action plan of the related stakeholders required in RITJ; and
- The Ministry of Transportation, in this case, the BPTJ, has effectively monitored and evaluated the implementation of the RITJ.
The source criteria formulated in this audit were statutory provisions/regulations and good management practices (good practice).
The Indonesian Government has demonstrated a solid commitment to improving the transportation system in the Greater Jakarta area. Accordingly, the Government has stipulated Presidential Regulation no. 103 of 2015 concerning the establishment of the BPTJ and Presidential Regulation No. 55 of 2018 concerning the RITJ.
The RITJ is a comprehensive planning document for the transportation sector in the Greater Jakarta area. This document contains the detailed strategies, programs, activities, and the parties responsible for implementing specific programs/activities. In addition, this document has set targets for implementing each program/activity. This document also contains performance indicators for the relevant output and outcome dimensions and the targets to achieve by 2029. The implementation of the RITJ is divided into three stages of the implementation period, namely the first stage of 2018-2019, the second stage of 2020-2024, and the third stage of 2025-2029.
The implementation of the RITJ involves multi-stakeholders of both Central Government and local government institutions. At the central government level, the institutions involved in the implementation of the RITJ includes the Ministry of Transportation, Ministry of Public Works and Public Housing (Ministry of PUPR), Indonesian National Police (Polri), Ministry of Agrarian and Spatial Planning/National Land Agency (Ministry of ATR/BPN), Ministry of Finance (Kemenkeu), Ministry of Health (Kemenkes) and the Ministry of Home Affairs (Kemendagri). At Regional Government (Pemda) includes three provinces and eight regencies/cities, namely the Province of the Special Capital Region of Jakarta, West Java Province, Banten Province, Bogor City, Bogor Regency, Depok City, Tangerang City, South Tangerang City, Tangerang Regency, Bekasi City, and Bekasi Regency.
The evaluation result regarding the phase I of RITJ implementation highlighted the problem of weak coordination, synergy, and commitment among the relevant stakeholders to implement the RITJ. The absence of an action plan prepared by each stakeholder stipulated in the RITJ indicates the existing problem. As stipulated in the RITJ, the action plan must at least contain information on each activity's implementation timeframe, funding, and implementation mechanism. The problem also revealed the ineffective role of the BPTJ in overseeing the RITJ’s implementation. The absence of an action plan of stakeholders has contributed to the failure to achieve the RITJ phase I implementation target.
The BPTJ sought to strengthen its supervisory role in the RITJ implementation by issuing the Decree of the Head of BPTJ No. KP- 116 of 2021, dated June 9, 2021, regarding the Formation of a Steering Team and a Work Assistance Team for the RITJ Action Plan 2020-2024. An Action Plan Work Steering and Assistance Team was formed to assist stakeholders in preparing their RITJ action plan. However, the audit results showed that of all the RITJ stakeholders, at the time of audit only two regions had signed the action plan, namely the Depok City Government and the Bogor Regency Government, while for other regional governments, the action plan was still in the form of a concept and had not been completed. Further investigation showed that the BPTJ, Ministry of PUPR, Police, Ministry of ATR/BPN, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Health, and others related to the RITJ did not yet have an action plan, either set or in the form of a concept. The absence of an action plan also makes it challenging to monitor and evaluate the implementation of the RITJ. If this problem continues unresolved, there is a risk that the phase 2 and phase 3 RITJ implementation targets will not be achieved.
Regarding these problems, BPK recommended that the Minister of Transportation:
- Conduct staffing and organizational analysis and complete the needs of work units related to the implementation of the main tasks and coordinating functions for the preparation of action plans, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of the RITJ;
- Optimize the role of the BPTJ in the implementation of the coordinating function for the preparation of action plans, monitoring, and evaluation of the RITJ;
- Develop a RITJ action plan and coordinate with other stakeholders to prepare an action plan following the Presidential Decree no. 55 of 2018 concerning the RITJ;
- Formulate policies with the competent Ministries/Agencies regarding the imposition of sanctions;
- Formulate and use appropriate methods to measure and assess the RITJ's KPI achievements; and
- Develop necessary standard operating procedures related to monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of the RITJ program.
Conclusion and Recommendation
The Indonesian Government has demonstrated a commitment to improving transportation system performance in the Greater Jakarta area. Accordingly, the Government has made regulations to establish the BPTJ and enact the RITJ. However, the Ministry of Transportation needs to continue to strive for continuous improvement, among others, by strengthening the institution of the BPTJ and prioritizing the preparation of the RITJ action plan from each of the stakeholders. In addition, the BPTJ needs to monitor and evaluate the RITJ’s implementation.
BPK Performance Audit Report No.163/HP/XIV/12/2021 31 December 2021, on Government Effectiveness in Implementing Sustainable Transportation at the Ministry of Transportation and Other Agencies.
Medium Term Government Plan 2015-2019.
Presidential Regulation No. 103 of 2015 concerning Transportation Management for Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang and Bekasi.
Presidential Regulation No. 59 of 2017 concerning the Implementation of the Achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals.
Presidential Regulation No. 55 of 2018 concerning the Greater Jakarta Transportation Master Plan.
Minister of Transportation Regulation No. 117 of 2017 concerning the Third Amendment of the Transportation Minister Regulation No. PM 189 of 2015 concerning Organization and Work Procedures of the Ministry of Transportation.
Decree of the Minister and PM No. 67 of 2021 concerning the Organization and Work Procedure of the Ministry of Transportation.
Minister of Transportation Decree No. 80 of 2020 concerning the Strategic Plan of the Ministry of Transportation for 2020-2024 (Key Performance Indicators (IKU) Part 3 Internal Process Perspective c, 4) Concrete Steps to Achieve the President's Vision in the Transportation Sector, Goals, Targets and Target Indicators of the Ministry of Transportation for 2020-2024, 5) and Strategic Targets, IKSS, and Meta Indicators of the Ministry of Transportation 2020 - 2024).
1 The Greater Jakarta area consists of consists of the Special Capital Region of Jakarta, Bogor City, Bogor Regency, Tangerang City, South Tangerang City, Tangerang Regency, Bekasi City, Bekasi Regency, which are located in three provinces, namely the Province of the Special Capital Region of Jakarta, West Java Province and Banten Province.